What you need to know about hydroponic grovelling
Cultivation by "Soilless Cultivation", as hydroponics can be briefly described, is inexpensive, efficient, and not at all difficult. It is a universal method of grovelling, which is popular not only in culture 420 - it is used by growers of all orientations. The main feature - plants "live" not in soil, which needs to be fertilized and watered, but in a special solution, where 99.9% of water and 0.1% of the useful components. Thus, plants are always in a nutritious environment with constant access to moisture. At the same time, hydroponics has its own nuances related to lighting, ventilation, air temperature, which we will talk more about below.
The ideal illumination for cannabis, as for any other plant, is sunlight. In a closed system it is recreated with lamps that dominate the spectrum: blue during vegetation and red during flowering. The good news is that there are no "special" lamps for hydroponics. If you've figured out lighting for growing cannabis in soil, then feel free to set it up for the soil-free method as well.
The most popular are still lamps DNAT and DRI - they have an excellent light output, suitable light spectra, but during operation they are strongly heated. Cannabis likes heat, it is even recommended to heat the water solution to 25-30C to create a comfortable microclimate for the plants. But in the case of DRI and DNAT, you need to ensure that there is no overheating, and this requires properly configured ventilation. On its importance we will talk in more detail below, yet it is worth remembering that lighting on hydroponics should be bright (do not skimp on the power of lamps), give the right spectrum and not overheat the plant.
Constant air circulation improves the absorption of useful substances and prevents the roots from rotting. Correctly adjusted ventilation is also necessary in the case of germination in the soil, but in hydroponics you can't do without it at all. It cools air, which is especially important for DRI and DNAT lamps, and also saturates plants with carbon dioxide, without which the most important biochemical process - photosynthesis - does not happen. Ventilation should work on the exhaust and on the inflow of air. If the latter cannot be adjusted, carbon dioxide with the addition of carbon dioxide is used. Remember that the more air coming in, the better for the cannabis. It is easy to notice its shortage - with bright light and a lack of nutrients, the plant grows poorly.
Minerals dissolved in water promote the growth and development of cannabis. Only special hydroponic fertilizers can be used, for example, from the Australian company Growth Technology. This is one of the best manufacturers in its field, and its products are not difficult to find in the CIS. Why are soil fertilizers not suitable? Because they are poorly soluble in water, have an unsuitable acid-alkaline balance, and the useful components will be poorly assimilated by plants. Soil fertilizers on hydroponics slowly kill the plant - it under-receives the necessary minerals, a deficiency develops and the plant dies.
However, the list of minerals that cannabis requires for normal development is the same for soil and hydroponic fertilizers. The only difference is in the way these components are delivered. For example, marijuana needs more nitrogen for growth during the growing season, and potassium and phosphorus during flowering. Also, these two components help plants cope with decreased light, and the need for nitrogen increases in bright light. To these three basic minerals can be added other substances, and you do not have to become a chemist to find the normal nutrition for the plants - just buy a quality fertilizer for hydroponics and follow the instructions.
Acid and Alkaline Balance (pH)
The optimal pH balance for hydroponics is between 6-6.5. This is another guarantee for normal - defect and disease free - cannabis development. You should continuously monitor the pH value with a pH meter. City filtered water usually has a suitable level.
Temperature in the greenhouse
The temperature in hydroponics should not be below 15C and above 30C. Optimal is considered to be in the range of 20-25C with humidity of 40-60%. If the temperature cannot be maintained above 15C, it is worth warming the room daily for 4 hours. As mentioned above, a comfortable microclimate helps to keep the marijuana solution warm. Ventilation will help to avoid excessively high temperatures.
Use filtered water that you could drink yourself. Plain tap water can be too hard because of its high salt content, the same inappropriate composition can have a spring, meltwater, rainwater, well water. Its acid-alkaline balance may also not be suitable for grovelling, so it is recommended to use purified municipal water.